How dogs can walk on ice without freezing their paws

first_img Explore further Scientists in Japan have solved a long-standing veterinary mystery: how dogs can stand and walk for so long on snow and ice without apparent discomfort, and without freezing their paws. Scientists at Tokyo’s Yamazaki Gakuen University wondered why dogs do not seem to feel the cold in their paws, even though the paws have less insulating fur than their trunks. The paws have pads containing a high fat content, which freezes less easily than other tissues, but they also have a high surface area-to-volume ratio, which means they should lose heat easily.In humans exposed to frigid temperatures, vasoconstriction occurs in the extremities to reduce the blood flow and resultant heat loss, and ensure the blood returning to the rest of the body does not cool too much. The research team, led by Dr. Hiroyoshi Ninomiya, used a scanning electron microscope to study the paws of four adult dogs, and discovered that the arteries supplying blood to the pads had networks of numerous small veins, or venules, closely associated with them, and that the system essentially acts as a counter-current heat exchanger. When warm blood arrives in the paws via the arteries, heat is transferred to the venules closely associated with the arteries, thus ensuring the blood has been warmed up before it returns to the rest of the body.The counter-current heat exchange system prevents the body cooling and ensures the paw temperature stays within reasonable limits. The same system has also been identified in other animals such as Antarctic penguins, where it occurs in their legs and wings, and dolphins, which use a heat exchange system in their fins. The Arctic Fox (Vulpes lagopus) was already known to have a counter-current heat exchange system in its paws, along with numerous other adaptations to the cold, but the existence of such a system in domestic dogs had not been previously suspected or identified. The findings suggest that domestic dogs might have originated in a cold climate, in which such a system would have had survival benefits.Domesticated dogs are not all able to withstand icy conditions on their paws to the same extent, depending on their environment (such as habitually living indoors), and the breed. Common tips often suggested to help domestic dogs avoid cold feet in winter is to ensure their pads are not split or injured in any way, and to spray their paws with cooking spray before taking them out in the snow. Frostbite is very rare in dogs, but it can occur.The paper is published in the journal Veterinary Dermatology. More information: Veterinary Dermatology, Volume 22, Issue 6, pages 475–481, December 2011. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3164.2011.00976.x © 2011 PhysOrg.comcenter_img Citation: How dogs can walk on ice without freezing their paws (2012, January 13) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-01-dogs-ice-paws.html Through sunshine, bitter cold, dogs need exercise This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Study shows starving mantis females attract more males

first_img Explore further A study done by Katherine Barry an evolutionary biologist with Macquarie University in Australia has led to the discovery that a certain species of female mantis attracts more males when starving, then do those who are well fed. In her paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, she describes experiments she carried out that contradicted conventional thinking. I like bright butts – how male mantids locate females Scientists have known for quite some time that female false garden mantises attract males using pheromones—they’ve also known that the females quite often eat the male before it has a chance to mate with her. Up until now, however, it has been assumed that the better fed females, which produce more eggs, attract more males. This new study suggests such thinking has been in error.Barry had a hunch that the hungriest of the females likely produced more pheromones than did others, because they had more at stake. Attracting more males meant attracting more meals, thereby solving the hunger problem. To test her idea, she captured several females and placed them in mesh cages that kept them separate and hidden from males that were introduced later. First, she fed the females differing amounts over a period of time, causing them to have four different levels of nourishment: good, medium, poor and very poor. When the males were introduced she counted how many were attracted to those in the various groups. In studying the data, she found that the males were more attracted to the females that were graded as good verses medium or poor, but those that were labeled as very poor attracted over twice as many as those that were labeled as good. Thus, starving the female clearly led to a stronger attraction in males, which is impressive considering that such females tend to produce very few eggs and thus offspring. Instead of producing eggs, the females produce more pheromones to attract more males which are eaten to reduce hunger, and thereafter, more eggs.As an added note, Barry pointed out that starving females are quite adept at avoiding copulation—she bites off the head and forelegs, to prevent being mounted, but still must wrangle with the male, as he has an additional brain in his abdomen. It’s only after he dies that she eats him. More information: Sexual deception in a cannibalistic mating system? Testing the Femme Fatale hypothesis, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, rspb.royalsocietypublishing.or … nt/282/1800/20141428ABSTRACTAnimal communication theory holds that in order to be evolutionarily stable, signals must be honest on average, but significant dishonesty (i.e. deception) by a subset of the population may also evolve. A typical praying mantid mating system involves active mate searching by males, which is guided by airborne sex pheromones in most species for which mate-searching cues have been studied. The Femme Fatale hypothesis suggests that female mantids may be selected to exploit conspecific males as prey if they benefit nutritionally from cannibalism. Such a benefit exists in the false garden mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata—females use the resources gained from male consumption to significantly increase their body condition and reproductive output. This study aimed to examine the potential for chemical deception among the subset of females most likely to benefit from cannibalism (poorly fed females). Females were placed into one of four feeding treatments (‘Very Poor’, ‘Poor’, ‘Medium’ and ‘Good’), and males were given the opportunity to choose between visually obscured females in each of the treatments. Female body condition and fecundity varied linearly with food quantity; however, female attractiveness did not. That is, Very Poor females attracted significantly more males than any of the other female treatments, even though these females were in significantly poorer condition, less fecund (in this study) and more likely to cannibalise (in a previous study). In addition, there was a positive correlation between fecundity and attractiveness if Very Poor females were removed from the analysis, suggesting an inherently honest signalling system with a subset of dishonest individuals. This is the first empirical study to provide evidence of sexual deception via chemical cues, and the first to provide support for the Femme Fatale hypothesis. Journal information: Proceedings of the Royal Society Bcenter_img Citation: Study shows starving mantis females attract more males (2014, December 17) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-12-starving-mantis-females-males.html © 2014 Phys.org Pseudomantis albofimbriata. Credit: Donald Hobern/Wikipedia This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Seven new giant radio galaxies discovered

first_img GRG are radio galaxies with an overall projected linear length exceeding at least 3.3 million light years. They are rare objects grown in low-density environments. GRGs are important for astronomers to study the formation and the evolution of radio sources.Jonatan Rentería Macario of the Autonomous University of Zacatecas and Heinz Andernach of the University of Guanajuato have lately analyzed images available in two recent radio surveys covering large areas of sky. The data provided by the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) 1-2 GHz Snapshot Survey of SDSS Stripe82 and the 150-MHz LOFAR Two-metre Sky Survey Preliminary Data Release (LoTSS-PDR) allowed the researchers to distinguish an impressive number of more than 2,000 extended features suggesting the presence of large radio galaxies. As a result, they confirmed the existence of seven new GRGs.”For our search, we selected two recent radio surveys that cover large areas of sky. (…) Here, we report the discovery of seven new GRGs in two recent surveys, the JVLA 1-2 GHz Snapshot Survey of SDSS Stripe82 and the 150-MHz LOFAR Two-metre Sky Survey Preliminary Data Release (LoTSS-PDR),” the authors wrote in the paper.Two of the seven new GRGs reported in the paper were detected by the JVLA Snapshot Survey, while the rest was found the data provided by LoTSS-PDR. The largest of the newly discovered GRGs, designated J1301+5105, has the projected linear size of about 8.44 million light years, making it one of the biggest giant radio galaxies known to date. Currently, with a projected size of approximately 16 million light years, the J1420-0545 holds the title of the largest giant radio galaxy discovered so far.J0152+0015 is the smallest GRG reported in the study. Its projected linear size is approximately 3.35 million light years. The rest of the giant radio galaxies reported in the paper have sizes ranging from 4.08 to 5.09 million light years. According to the study, other interesting radio sources found by the two surveys will be inspected in more detail in the future, which could reveal the presence of more GRGs, especially radio-faint and distant ones.In concluding remarks, the researchers noted that their discovery proved that visual inspection of radio images is a successful method for finding new GRGs. “Our results show that current and forthcoming low-frequency surveys with excellent sensitivity to low surface brightness features have a large potential to discover significant amounts of giant radio galaxies as well as sources of complex or currently unknown types of morphologies,” the authors concluded. GRG J1301+5105 in LoTSS-PDR. The cross marks the host and the straight line is 10.3′ long. Credit: Macario and Andernach, 2017. Giant radio galaxy found by Indian astronomers © 2017 Phys.org (Phys.org)—Mexican astronomers report the discovery of seven new large extragalactic radio sources called giant radio galaxies (GRG). The GRGs were found by visual inspection of radio images provided by two astronomical radio surveys. The findings were presented October 31 in a paper published on arXiv.org. More information: New Giant Radio Galaxies in the SDSS-JVLA Stripe82 and LoTSS-PDR Survey, arXiv:1710.10731 [astro-ph.GA] arxiv.org/abs/1710.10731AbstractExtragalactic radio sources with projected linear size larger than one Megaparsec 1 Mpc = 3.09e22 m = 3.3e6 light years) are called Giant Radio Galaxies (GRGs) or quasars (GRQs). Over the past few years our search for such objects by visual inspection of large-scale radio surveys like the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) and Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters (FIRST) has allowed us to quadruple the number of GRGs published in literature. Here we report the discovery of 7 new GRGs in two recent surveys, the JVLA 1-2 GHz Snapshot Survey of SDSS Stripe82 and the 150-MHz LOFAR Two-metre Sky Survey Preliminary Data Release (LoTSS-PDR). Citation: Seven new giant radio galaxies discovered (2017, November 7) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-11-giant-radio-galaxies.html Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Alabama Gov Kay Ivey Apologizes For Wearing B

first_img Vasha Hunt Alabama Gov. Kay Ivey Apologizes For Wearing Blackface… by NPR News Jessica Taylor 8.29.19 8:33pm Alabama Republican Gov. Kay Ivey has apologized for wearing blackface during a skit at Auburn University more than 50 years ago.Ivey said Thursday she still doesn’t recall the incident, but after a recording surfaced of her discussing the sketch with her then-fiancé and later first husband, Ben LaRavia, Ivey admitted it must be true.”Even after listening to the tape, I sincerely do not recall either the skit, which evidently occurred at a Baptist Student Union party, or the interview itself, both which occurred 52 years ago. Even though Ben is the one on tape remembering the skit — and I still don’t recall ever dressing up in overalls or in blackface — I will not deny what is the obvious,” Ivey said. “As such, I fully acknowledge — with genuine remorse — my participation in a skit like that back when I was a senior in college.”According to the interview Ivey and LaRavia did with the campus radio station in 1967, the sketch was titled “cigar butts” and “did not require a lot of talent, as far as verbal talent, but did require a lot of physical acting, such as crawling around on the floor looking for cigar butts and things like this, which certainly got a big reaction out of the audience.”Ivey is the latest politician to be swept into scandal over the wearing of blackface, a racist practice that has its roots in minstrel shows. Earlier this year, Virginia Democratic Gov. Ralph Northam admitted he had put black shoe polish on his face to dress up like Michael Jackson for a dance contest — an admission that came after a photo of a man dressed up in blackface aside another man in Ku Klux Klan dress appeared on Northam’s medical school yearbook page. Northam has denied either man is him. Soon after, Virginia Democratic Attorney General Mark Herring admitted he had put on blackface when dressing up like a rapper during college. Other politicians have come under fire for appearing in Confederate uniforms.In a state like Alabama — infamous for its violence against and treatment of African Americans during the civil rights movement — Ivey’s admission could draw even more scrutiny. Ivey alluded to those tensions in her apology, saying it’s “not what my administration represents all these years later.””I offer my heartfelt apologies for the pain and embarrassment this causes, and I will do all I can — going forward — to help show the nation that the Alabama of today is a far cry from the Alabama of the 1960s,” Ivey said. “We have come a long way, for sure, but we still have a long way to go.”In February, the Auburn student newspaper uncovered yearbook photos of members of Ivey’s sorority appearing in blackface, but the governor denied she ever participated.Rep. Terri Sewell, the state’s only Democratic House member, tweeted that “Gov. Ivey’s admission today only deepens open wounds” and her “words of apology ring hollow if not met with real action to bridge the racial divide.”But the state Republican Party has come to Ivey’s defense: “The Alabama Republican Party appreciates and supports Gov. Kay Ivey taking ownership of and responsibility for this 50-plus-year-old incident. While it occurred when she was a college student, Governor Ivey has stood up, admitted her mistake and offered a sincere apology though she has no recollection of the event,” Alabama GOP Chairman Terry Lathan said in a statement. “Her extraordinary record of public service shows her ability to work with all people regardless of race, religion or party affiliation.”Copyright 2019 NPR. To see more, visit NPR.last_img read more

So what are you doing this Republic Day

first_imgTo mark the 63rd Republic Day, let’s shift our priorities by trying to be responsible citizens. But R-Day in Delhi also means closed markets, traffic restrictions and more. So what do you do if you want to go out? Simple, head to the mall. Two city malls are organising cultural programmes in asscoation with Self Assessment and Management Workshop (SAM), an NGO. ‘Our volunteers will be performing dances, drama and will also be singing,’ says Geetanjali Atri, media coordinator, SAM. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’There will be  a dance performance by Prince Dance Group of India’s Got Talent fame who are coming from Chattisgarh. There will be dances based on Lord Shiva, Vishnu and Indian Army. A rock band, Eternal Bliss, will present a fusion mix of their own compositions dedicated to the Indian Army. They will round up with a skit based on Subhas Chandra Bose’s journey and sacrifice which inspired the whole nation.DETAILAt: Select Citywalk, Saket; Pacific Mall, Rajouri Garden When: Today Timings: 4 pm onwardslast_img read more

Go to people with proof of development Mamata to MLAs

first_imgWest Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee seems definitely in mood to revamp the party organisation in the run up to the Assembly elections in 2016. At a recent meeting with party leaders, Banerjee not only reshuffled the Trinamool Congress’ (TMC) district leadership, but asked her party leaders to highlight the achievements of the government “with proof”– in the run-up to the  Also Read – Need to understand why law graduate’s natural choice is not legal profession: CJIAssembly polls. “There should be a list of schools, colleges, ITIs, hospitals with the party workers when they campaign. The people must know what we have done for them”, Sobhondeb Chattopadhyay, chief whip of the TMC in the Bidhan Sabha told Millennium Post.The Chief Minister reiterated how the public must be made aware of the various schemes that the government is offering and how to avail them.“Most of the people don’t know about schemes”, Chattopadhyay pointed out. Also Read – Health remains key challenge in India’s development: KovindThe Labour Department, for example, has schemes for the unorganised sector such as bidi workers, construction workers and so on. There are schemes for those living Below the Poverty Line (BPL) – like Amaar Bari Amaar Thikana, Geetanjali, etc. “The government provides housing for the homeless and also 3 kathas of land for building a small house and a kitchen garden, where vegetables can be grown. A small pond can also be used to develop pisciculture on this land”, he added.The district administration will also work hand-in-hand with the committees on development schemes.last_img read more

KoPT to deck up Howrah Bridge with LED lights

first_imgKolkata: The Kolkata Port Trust (KoPT) will soon begin work for installing multi-coloured LED lights to light up the Rabindra Setu, popularly known as Howrah Bridge, which is celebrating its 75 years this year.”Four to five top notch companies having expertise in illumination have already made their presentation. We are trying to figure out which one will be the best among them. The LED lights will be installed keeping in mind the heritage aspect of the structure. We hope to float the tender in two to three months,” KoPT chairman Vinit Kumar said. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeThe KoPT is also keeping in mind the cost factor before going for the tender as the estimates for decorating the bridge given by the companies is varying between Rs 15 to 19 crore.A senior KoPT official said that they have plans to set up the lights in a manner so that the colour and theme can be changed during occasions. For example, the lighting on Independence Day will echo the colours of the country’s national flag.The KoPT has planned the illumination to be of international standard, which will be an attraction in itself like San Francisco Bridge, George Washington Bridge at Manhattan, New York and Sydney Harbour Bridge of Australia, whose lighting enthralls people from all parts of the globe. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedIt may be mentioned that in 2006, Howrah Bridge was decked up with sodium vapour lights but they soon turned dim.Howrah Bridge, which since its inception continues to evoke the same kind of curiosity and awe as it did seventy five years ago, has a suspended span over the Hooghly River.Commissioned in 1943, the bridge was originally named the New Howrah Bridge, because it replaced a pontoon bridge at the same location linking the two cities of Howrah and Kolkata (Calcutta). On June 14, 1965, it was renamed Rabindra Setu after the great Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore, who was the first Indian and Asian Nobel laureate.It may be mentioned that the Howrah Bridge ferries more than 1.15 lakh vehicles on a daily basis from both Kolkata and Howrah. More than 5 lakh pedestrians also cross the bridge every day from both directions, easily making it the busiest cantilever bridge in the world.The third-longest cantilever bridge at the time of its construction, the Howrah Bridge is currently the sixth-longest bridge of its type in the world.last_img read more

Consider Bengal to be your home make plans to invest here Mamata

first_imgKolkata: Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee urged businessmen to invest in Information Technology (IT) in Bengal which is set to be the future destination in the country and perhaps the whole world.She laid the foundation stone of the Bengal Silicon Valley Hub at New Town on Monday evening. Terming it as “historic,” Banerjee said: “We were not there when investment in IT started in Hyderabad and Bengaluru. But now, both the places are saturated and Bengal is coming up as the next destination. Invest in Bengal and the state government will provide every facility,” she said. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeThe proposed hub is coming up in 100 acre of land and “if needed, we will provide another 100 acre,” she added.Banerjee maintained that there is no dearth of talent in Bengal. “You will find IT professionals from Bengal working in Hyderabad and Bengaluru and in many foreign countries as well. They will come back if you can give them proper infrastructure and respect. And I believe, they can do miracles,” she pointed out.Urging strong investments in the IT sector in Bengal, she stated the talent pool in Bengal is very high and the attrition rate is as low as 3 percent. The state government has land banks and land-use policy. “Consider Bengal to be your home and make plans to take the state forward. We are there to give you all the support. Consider us to be one of your family members,” she said. The Chief Minister said the situation in Bengal has changed drastically over the past few years. “There was a time when people did not want to invest in Bengal because of bandhs and strikes. The man-days loss amounted to 70 lakh and now it has been brought down to zero. I do not support bandhs and always believe in positive and not negative approach.” Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedBanerjee inaugurated three IT parks at Malda, Siliguri (Phase III) and Purulia. She congratulated the budding industrialists who have invested in the IT parks. Ramdas Kamath, the senior vice-president, Infosys, said well-known architect Hafiz Contractor has designed its building that will come up in New Town.”We will take 15 months to complete the building which will be a landmark site representing neo-classical architecture in Bengal. He especially thanked Debashis Sen, Additional Chief Secretary, state IT Department and Swarup Roy, Advisor, IT Promotion Cell for their tireless efforts to bring Infosys to Bengal. Describing Mamata Banerjee as “the best Chief Minister in the country,” Sanjiv Goenka said: “This is the best place to invest and the state government is ready to give every support. I do business in many states but in Bengal, the support I receive from the Chief Minister, her colleagues and the bureaucrats is remarkable.”Top officials of IT companies including TCS, Cognizant, Oracle India, Sify Technologies Limited, HPE-Aruba, DQE, Capgemini were also present at the event.last_img read more

Social media can help students connect better

first_imgNot just connecting you with friends, interaction with fellow students on social networking website can help you focus and study better, say researchers.Developers of open online courses may want to take a page from Facebook to keep more students engaged and enrolled.“Current open course platforms do not include collaborative features for students to work together, or good conversation channels between students and between students and teachers. Social media may provide another communication channel for the students,” said Saijing Zheng, former doctoral student at Pennsylvania State University. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The researchers found that open course students were more engaged on Facebook groups and preferred interacting more on the social media site than through the course tools. “We found that social media tools may be one way to keep students engaged in an open course,” said Zheng, currently research scientist at Microsoft. One of the advantages of Facebook groups is that users tend to sign up with their real names while students can create fake personas on course message boards and forums. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflix“Real names give other students the idea that they are talking to a real person and that, perhaps, helps build a sense of community and they trust that type of environment more,” Zheng noted.Students appreciate that Facebook offers several ways to contact the professor, she said.  They can reply to a post, like a post, and even send a private message.Students on Facebook groups can meet and chat weeks before the course starts and, in some cases, long after it ends. Facebook replies and posts also tend to be better organised than message board conversations, which can easily become buried among other posts, according to the researchers.For the study, the researchers collected data from three different courses on Coursera, a platform that hosts MOOCS, and from Facebook groups.The findings were shared at the annual ACM conference on Learning at Scale at University of Edinburgh in Britain this week.last_img read more

KMDA to set up foot overbridges to smoothen traffic

first_imgKolkata: Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority (KMDA) has decided to set up a few foot overbridges on Kazi Nazrul Islam Sarani and Eastern Metropolitan Bypass for faster movement of traffic and safety of the pedestrians.An underpass and a pedestrian footbridge will come up at Ruby intersection. Because of heavy traffic crossing the stretch on EM Bypass near Ruby, commutation has become a nightmare for the pedestrians. Because of offices, the concentration of people surrounding Ruby is fast increasing. The underpass will come up on the Mukundapur side while the foot overbridge will be constructed near the station of Garia-Airport Metro route. Experts suggested that there will be a huge concentration of people along EM Bypass and unless steps are not taken now, it will difficult to manage traffic and pedestrian movement in a few years’ time. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeFoot overbridges will also come up at the intersection of Ajaynagar and Patuli. Both these areas are accident prone as pedestrians find it difficult to cross EM Bypass. The pedestrian flyover will create an uninterrupted flow of traffic along the stretch. Foot overbridge will also come up at Dum Dum Park crossing. Once these foot overbridges come up, the time taken to travel to Kolkata Airport from Garia will lessen. Also, they will minimise the number of road accidents.last_img read more