Pags FC Stuns Young Vision FC to Gain Promotion to Division Two

first_imgIt was a joyous moment for Pags FC at the Antoinette Tubman Stadium after finally getting a promotion to the Second Division following over 4 years in the third division. (Photo credit T Kla Wesley.) Pags FC are heading to Division Two of the Liberia Football Association league for the first time after they scored two goals in each half to a comfortable 4-1 win against Young Vision FC at the Antoinette Tubman Stadium yesterday.A brace from Clearance Koikoi and a goal apiece from Mark Kadley and Adolphus Robert were enough for the Logan Town based club to secure the first slot in the LFA Division Two league.Following their thrilling 5-1 win over Jr. Barcelona in the quarterfinals, the Montserrado club demonstrated their eagerness to advance to the 2nd division.Pags opened the scoring from the penalty spot after striker Kadley perfectly slotted home to put his side in front.Young Vision FC failed to pick up their game throughout the first half and as a result, could not put up a strong challenge.Pags FC made more attempts and skipper Adolphus Roberts came close to doubling the lead in the 26th minute but missed a header. Fifteen minutes later, the captain registered his name on the score sheet with a rebound in the 41st minute.The two goals were enough for the newly promoted side as they went for the first half break. Contrary to their first-half approach, Young Vision FC changed their style of play in the second half hoping to change the trend of the game.Their new style of play yielded a result in the 65th minute after Ezekiel Johnson got what turned out to be their consolation to make the score 2-1.The match became tense and Pags FC came under pressure as their opponents continued to mount pressure in search of another goal.But their hope was dashed by Clearance Koikoi in the remaining 20 minutes. Koikoi became the man of the moment after he scored a brace in the 71st and 88th minutes respectively.Young Vision FC will now wait for the loser of the next semifinals match to get another chance to determine their qualification.This result brought to end the over 5-year spell for the fourth division.In another development, Samira FC and Freeport FC were yesterday put on hold after Bristol FC complained against Samira FC, which the LFA has decided to look into it.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)last_img read more

Incredible Fish that Defy Evolution

first_imgThe variety of shapes, colors and ecological niches of fishes prove too much for chance mutations and unguided processes to handle.Carpe solis – sunbathing fish defy the laws of nature (Phys.org). Why don’t those large koi fish we see in garden ponds get sunburn? A study from Linnaeus University says, “The results from the study of sunbathing carp points to a paradigm shift.” Fish aren’t supposed to be able to regulate their body temperature by sunbathing, but these carp can. Not only that, the study showed differences between the fish that point to a high degree of adaptability within the same species and population.That sunbathing may require a refreshing swim to avoid overheating is a vacation experience shared by many. It has been assumed that this cooling effect of water prevents fish from reaping the rewards of sunbathing available to animals in terrestrial environments. New evidence on behavior of carp, published in the Royal Society journal Proceedings B, challenges this paradigm. Sunbathing fish can become warmer than the surrounding water and the gain in body temperature enables the fish to grow faster, the study shows…Different behaviors, appearances and strategies are favorable under different conditions, and variability among individuals may enable populations and species to cope with life in an ever changing world.Ocean-migrating trout adapt to freshwater environment in 120 years (Purdue University). When steelhead trout were stocked in Lake Michigan, it only took them 120 years to adapt to a full-time freshwater lifestyle from a part-time freshwater, part-time saltwater lifestyle. Although the Purdue biologists believe the study provides “deeper understanding into the process of adaptive evolution,” the adaptive processes seem too rapid for unguided random processes like mutation and natural selection. The Purdue researchers identified three chromosomal modifications related to osmoregulation (salt control) and to wound healing, but those processes already existed in the fish, and support vital functions. They appear to have been merely tuned by the new environment. The changes support Randy Guliuzza’s view that genomes are pre-programmed with the ability to adapt to environmental cues (see ICR).Daniel Castranova NICHD/NIH (Phys.org)Researchers identify how eye loss occurs in blind cavefish (Phys.org). Short answer: it’s not a case of neo-Darwinian evolution (genetic mutation and selection). It’s an epigenetic modification, specifically the epigenetic suppression of eye-producing genes. This reduces the cost of making eyes for fish that don’t need them. Moreover, there’s been no real evolution between the subterranean fish and the ones living in surface waters:Despite their dramatic differences, surface and cave morphs share similar genomes and can interbreed. Cave morphs begin eye development early but fail to maintain this program, undergoing eye degeneration within a few days of development. Previous research has not revealed any obvious mutations in genes important for their eye development.Molecular tuning of electroreception in sharks and skates (Nature). Think of the engineering requirements to get any animal to sense electricity or produce it for signaling. In this paper, three evolutionary biologists examine “fine tuning” in electrosensation in sharks and rays (skates), showing how they differ. “Our findings demonstrate how sensory systems adapt to suit the lifestyle or environmental niche of an animal through discrete molecular and biophysical modifications,” they say. You can get a taste of the complexity from the Abstract:Here we analyse shark and skate electrosensory cells to determine whether discrete physiological properties could contribute to behaviourally relevant sensory tuning. We show that sharks and skates use a similar low threshold voltage-gated calcium channel to initiate cellular activity but use distinct potassium channels to modulate this activity. Electrosensory cells from sharks express specially adapted voltage-gated potassium channels that support large, repetitive membrane voltage spikes capable of driving near-maximal vesicular release from elaborate ribbon synapses. By contrast, skates use a calcium-activated potassium channel to produce small, tunable membrane voltage oscillations that elicit stimulus-dependent vesicular release.So far so good. But then they tell us, “Electroreception has independently evolved in many taxa to facilitate particular behaviours ranging from predation to communication.” Stop right there! Evolution cannot “evolve to” do anything; it is unguided, remember? And worse, the statement resorts to ‘convergent evolution’ to explain away the need for belief in multiple miracles of chance (see Darwin Flubber in the Darwin Dictionary). They never explain how evolution worked these miracles. They just state their belief that it did. Science Daily doesn’t explain it, either; its write-up just asserts that “evolution shapes the senses.” That’s using a word, evolution, like an all-purpose magic wand—able to supply any miracle on demand. Look at just a few of the Darwinian miracles required for electrosensing, not counting behavioral responses:In both sea creatures, networks of organs, called ampullae of Lorenzini, constantly survey the electric fields they swim through. Electricity enters the organs through pores that surround the animals’ mouths and form intricate patterns on the bottom of their snouts. Once inside, it is carried via a special gel through a grapevine of canals, ending in bunches of spherical cells that can sense the fields, called electroreceptors. Finally, the cells relay this information onto the nervous system by releasing packets of chemical messengers, called neurotransmitters, into communication points, or synapses, made with neighboring neurons.Can Evolutionists Explain Fish Evolution?Resolving the ray-finned fish tree of life (PNAS). Michael Alfaro struggles with the enormous diversity of fish. How does a Darwinian hang them all on a single branching tree diagram?When it comes to vertebrate evolutionary history, our understanding of lobe-finned fishes—the branch of the vertebrate tree leading to coelacanths plus the tetrapods (amphibians, turtles, birds, crocodiles, lizards, snakes, and mammals)—far outstrips our knowledge of ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii). Actinopterygians exhibit extraordinary species richness (>33,000 described species) and have evolved a staggering diversity in morphology and ecology over their 400+ million y history. Ray-finned fishes include some of the smallest vertebrates [the adult cyprinid Paedocypris progenetica measure just under 8 mm], some of the largest (adult ocean sunfish weigh more than 2,000 kg), some of the longest (oarfishes may reach a length of more than 13 m), some of the longest lived [rougheye rockfishes, Sebastes aleutianus, may live for more than 200 y], and some of the shortest lived [the coral reef pygmy goby, Eviota sigillata, has a maximum lifespan of 59 d]. In marine waters, ray-finned fishes include the tremendously diverse and ecologically rich coral reef fish families, such as wrasses, angelfishes, butterfly fishes, and damselfishes, and they comprise most important commercial and recreational fishing stocks. Within freshwaters, ray-finned fishes have produced several ecologically dominant radiations, including cyprinids, characiforms, catfishes, and cichlids. Efforts to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of this group have proven extremely challenging, especially within acanthomorphs, a hyperdiverse subclade comprising almost two-thirds of all ray-finned fish species.Alfaro bluffs that evolutionary understanding of lobe-finned fishes is better than that of ray-finned fishes, because he has Tiktaalik in mind, along with some other alleged intermediate forms that Darwinians believe show a progression to land-based tetrapods. He should have read Clement and Long’s article on The Conversation (next).It’s less than 2cm long, but this 400 million year old fossil fish changes our view of vertebrate evolution (The Conversation). Alice Clement and John Long wear their D-Merit Badges proudly, but tell their readers that fish have “a complicated family tree.” They excitedly share their latest alleged transitional form, a fossil named Lingulalepis, but the article undermines the bluffing confidence of Alfaro’s paper. “Our findings highlight that the evolutionary family tree of the first bony fishes is much more complicated than we had thought,” they say in Tontological form, “demonstrating the importance of palaeontology to help us more accurately understand our distant origins.”A tetrapod fauna from within the Devonian Antarctic Circle (Science Magazine). If you think Darwinians had their story together about fish becoming tetrapods, read this paper by Per Ahlberg and Robert Gess. Tiktaalik and its relatives were found in tropical or subtropical locations, but now these two evolutionists found candidates in the Antarctic. “Thus, the distribution of tetrapods may have been global, which encourages us to rethink the environments in which this important group was shaped.” Not only that, Gess & Ahlberg upset the applecart more. They confirm that the Polish tetrapod trackways, dated earlier than Tiktaalik, confound the story of tetrapod evolution. They they throw in some soft tissue preservation! To creationists, that challenges the Darwinian belief in millions of years.The Waterloo Farm tetrapod fossils and the Middle Devonian tetrapod trackways from Poland and Ireland challenge the popular scenario of a tropical origin of tetrapods during the Late Devonian. Tetrapods originated no later than the Eifelian (early Middle Devonian), when they were present in southern Laurussia; by the late Famennian (latest Devonian), they ranged from the tropics to the south polar regions. This geographic pattern could still point to a tropical origin but may simply be a sampling artifact. Against this background, the continued investigation of nontropical localities such as Waterloo Farm must be a priority. Waterloo Farm is also the only known Devonian tetrapod locality to feature soft-tissue preservation, as exemplified by the earliest known lamprey, Priscomyzon. The locality thus has the potential not only to cast new light on early tetrapod biogeography and evolution, but also to illuminate unknown aspects of their morphology.Same story, different habitat. The facts line up against Darwinism, but no matter what the conflict with reality, the Darwinians persist in their belief. They say a new study “sheds light on evolution” or “helps us more accurately understand our distant origins.” Resolution of any and all difficulties is passed on to futureware, giving the Darwin Party perennial job security for storytellers (25 June 2014). What a scam!— or should we say, What a fish story! ‘You should have seen the one that got away from Darwin!’(Visited 528 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

Exploring bicycle culture in South Africa

first_imgJohannes van Wyk and his children Chris, Danisha and Sarie not only cycle, but arealso capable bicycle mechanics. Twin sisters Louisa and Johanna Mokoaqoencourage each other’s love of cycling.Marina le Grange prefers to cycle short distances, rather than getting into a car. (Images: Day One Publications) MEDIA CONTACTS • Stan EngelbrechtDay One Publications+27 82 928 6586 RELATED ARTICLES • SA’s first hydrogen bike rolled out • Improving lives with bicycles • Bikes for Africa – from bamboo • School campaign helps change lives• Going green for 2010Wilma den HartighTwo South African friends who share an enthusiasm for bicycles and cycling have started a project that explores South African bicycle culture and commuting on the saddle.The project, called Bicycle Portraits, is the idea of Stan Engelbrecht, a photographer and publisher, and Nic Grobler, a motion graphics designer.The focus of the project is to provide insight into the lives of people who use bicycles for daily commuting, instead of just leisure or exercise. With global warming a concern across the planet, the efforts of these energetic people have the potential to make a big difference.Since early 2010, Engelbrecht and Grobler have travelled across the country, on their own bicycles, to take photographs of saddle commuters and their bikes.“It has been an incredible journey to meet South Africans who rely on two wheels for transport, and also to meet their bicycles,” Grobler says.They have been everywhere, from South Africa’s major cities to the West Coast, from country towns in the Free State to Orania in the Northern Cape.“So many times, when we look at the bicycle and the owner, they just fit together. I don’t know how it works, it is just a weird connection,” Grobler says.South Africa’s diversity of peopleEngelbrecht and Grobler have photographed South Africans of all ages, and from all walks of life. Some of the cyclists they meet along the way use bicycles because they cannot afford cars or public transport. Others just love cycling.Marinda le Grange, from Orania in the Northern Cape, had this to say about her bicycle: “The most enjoyable thing for me on the bicycle is when I become daring enough to ride with no hands, just to pedal and not hold on – then I feel young.”David Mamabolo, from Muckleneuk in Pretoria, said many people want him to sell his bicycle to them. “But I always say no because I really like it. You see, it’s an old one like me.”Chrystl Küstner, from Pretoria in Gauteng, works as a physiotherapist and uses her bicycle to visit patients. “I like cycling with a purpose, not just for the sake of it. I go to the shops and I do my shopping, carrying a backpack and using my carrier. I do all my shopping with the bicycle, or with my feet – I don’t like driving with a car,” she says.Awie Harmse bought a bicycle because he can’t afford a car. Salmon Mojaki says that his bicycle may have an old frame, but it is one of the strongest frames you can get, and his bicycle has been the best transport he’s ever had.Many benefitsEngelbrecht and Grobler are raising funds to publish a full-colour hardcover photographic book early next year of their travels, the people they have met and their stories.The co-founders hope the project and the book will encourage more South Africans to get on to their bicycles and start peddling.Strangely, besides all the benefits one could enjoy from owning a bicycle, commuter cyclists still seem to be a rare breed,” Engelbrecht says. As they spent more time on the road, they realised just how few South Africans use bicycles to commute.They also want to change perceptions about cycling. Given all the benefits, such as independence, health, fitness, cost-effectiveness, and kindness to the environment, more South Africans from all social classes should be encouraged to use bicycles.Many of the cyclists they interviewed told them that cycling was easier on the pocket. Cycling helps them to save money every month by avoiding public transport. However, Engelbrecht says that he’s not exactly sure why so few people don’t own bicycles or cycle.Some of the reasons they have identified include cultural intolerance, stigma of poverty, physical danger and lack of infrastructure. “We’ve noticed that as our major centres develop there still seems to be a trend to make cities more friendly for cars, not people,” he says.If roads were more cycle-friendly and the correct infrastructure was established, owning a bicycle could change the lives of many people. South Africa’s socio-economic climate makes it the ideal location for cycle commuting, Grobler says.For more people to take up cycling, there is a great need for good quality, yet affordable and comfortable bicycles in South Africa.Cheap imported bicycles are another challenge, he says. They have too many gears, smart paint jobs and are poorly made. “Second-hand bicycles can be cheap but simple, robust and easy to maintain. That is what we need,” he says.Inspiring South Africans to cycleThrough the project, Engelbrecht and Grobler also want to empower underprivileged South Africans. Some of their ideas include teaching bicycle maintenance skills and providing cyclists with important cycling gear such as helmets, tyres, tubes and locks.One of their long-term goals is to create a support structure such as a trust funded through a percentage of book sales, or a charity, for people who appear in the book.Grobler says that they have relied on social networking sites such as blogs, Facebook and Twitter to raise awareness of the Bicycle Portraits project.This has been very successful and has created an entire community of local and international followers who are interested in the project. Some fans are cycling fanatics, but others are not familiar with bicycles at all.The Kickstarter initiativeEngelbrecht and Grobler decided to raise funds through the Kickstarter social-network pledge-for-a-reward fundraising page.Anyone with a creative idea can pitch it on the Kickstarter website. The way it works is simple: every project must have a funding goal (an amount in dollars) and a time limit between one and 90 days, determined by the creator of the project.Once the deadline is reached, funding will either be successful if it reached the goal, or terminated. If it meets the goal, all pledge amounts are collected at once and the money is handed over to the project creator. In return, the project must be completed as promised.If the project does not meet the funding goal all pledges are cancelled. To encourage people to pledge, each project has to offer a reward as part of the pledge deal. Engelbrecht and Grobler have undertaken that each person who donates US$50 (about R348) or more will receive a copy of the book.Their goal is to raise $35,000 (R243 862) to complete the production of the book. Fundraising has been divided into three pledge drives. The third and final fundraising leg will start in December.In the first phase, they raised more than $15,000 (R104 512) to cover travelling, shooting, writing and preparation of the content for the second phase of the project.In the second pledge phase, $9,000 (R62 707) was collected for design, layout and pre-printing preparations. They hope that the third fundraising phase will raise $12,500 (R87 093) for printing and binding of 3000 copies of the book.Revealing the spirit of South AfricansIn comparison with the rest of Africa, and a country like the Netherlands, South Africa has quite a bit of catching up to do when it comes to cycle commuting. But besides motivating more South Africans to cycle, Engelbrecht says the project has also revealed the character and friendliness of South Africa’s people. Wherever they went, people were big-hearted, eager to share their stories, and truly inspirational, he says.last_img read more

What Do Filmmakers Mean When They Refer to the Cooke Look?

first_imgCooke lenses offer one of the most distinctive looks for filmmakers. So what is the “Cooke look,” and what does it mean for you?Cover image via Cooke.When someone refers to “The Cooke Look,” what exactly are they referencing? As filmmakers, we hear the term constantly, but can we pinpoint the meaning of that look — or recall its history?Cooke lenses have shaped the film industry for most of the last century. Filmmakers have used Cookes on countless films, granting the lenses industry-staple status. We’re going to take a look at the history of Cooke and what exactly the Cooke Look is — and why these lenses may or may not be right for your film. The BeginningCooke has a long history of lens-making under its belt. Cooke began in 1893 with the now famous Cooke Triplet design, which eliminated the softness around the edges of telescope lenses. Eventually, the company leveraged this into making lenses for cinema applications. In 1921, Cooke began making their well-known and often-used Speed Panchro Series I lenses, which secured Cooke’s foundation in the world of cinematography lens-making. Interestingly enough, you can still find these original Panchro Series I lenses.In 1935, the Director of Photography of Metro-Goldwyn Mayer studios said, ‘… at least 50% of our productions are made with Speed Panchros. I will try to name a few pictures that were made with Speed Panchros: Rasputin, Reunion in Vienna, Viva Villa, Going Hollywood, Riptide, Treasure Island . . . and others too numerous to mention. As I said before all of our productions are made with Cooke Lenses as this Studio is practically 100% Cooke equipped.’Cooke Speed PanchrosThe legacy of the Cooke Look began with the Cooke Speed Panchro lenses. Created in three different series (I, II, III) these lenses were a staple in Hollywood for decades. They created a warm look with cinematic texture, great skin tone, and the smooth sharpness that comprises the Cooke Look. In fact, these vintage cinema lenses have seen a huge resurgence in popularity in recent years. Many modern cinematographers are using rehoused versions of these lenses to create a more analog look in a digital world. New VenturesCooke has recently introduced the S7 line of lenses (to cover full-frame cameras), a set of anamorphic lenses, and a reissue of their vintage Speed Panchro set — due to increasing demand.Cooke lenses provided the foundations of many cinematographers’ careers. These lenses have been at the forefront of cinematography since nearly the beginning, and the Cooke Look will be around for generations to come.Looking for more information on lenses? Check out these articles.Hot Dog! You Can Now Make AR Lenses for Snapchat in Lens StudioGear Review: the Leica Summicron-C Series of LensesWorking with Vintage Lenses on Modern CamerasGear Tip: How to Clean your Lenses Like a ProfessionalUnderstanding Zoom Lenses and How to Use Them Properlycenter_img Cooke S4s/ S4 MiniThe most commonly known and used Cooke lenses today, the S4s, debuted in 1998. These produced the classic Cooke Look and featured a fast 2.0 aperture. In 2005, Cooke introduced the S4/i lenses, which recorded digital protocol. That meant all recorded lens information was available in post-production.The Cooke S4 minis debuted in 2009 as lower-cost and -weight alternatives to the S4s. They featured an aperture of 2.8. From 2009 to 2012, the mini S4s carried the name “Cooke Panchros.” Due to confusion with the Speed Panchro series, Cooke rebranded them as the mini S4s.last_img read more

#KicksStalker: What makes the Agimat click?

first_imgREAD: #KicksStalker: Nike, LeBron provide Gilas PH with ‘Agimat’ The words “Para Sa Kadakilaan” appear on the heel tab and the heel cushion. If you have the limited edition box, you’ll find a triangular emblem on top that’s a replica of a medallion (an agimat, what else?) that accompanies the sneaker. There, you’ll also find the phrase “Mula mandirigma sa mandirigma” inscribed on it.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSSEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completionSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutoutSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingPhoto from Nike PHThe traditional fabric woven along with the cultural elements adorning the shoe also help make it a collector’s piece among Filipino kicks stalkers.The homage to the Filipino basketball culture interspersed with Filipino mythology is the reason why some of the Gilas Pilipinas players like Troy Rosario were in awe of the shoe, arousing feelings of national pride and patriotism even at just first glance. A closer look at the Nike LeBron 14 “Agimat.” Photo from Nike PHNow that the LeBron 14 “Agimat” has finally hit select shoe store shelves and found its way to the hands of giddy sneakerheads, it’s time to look at the qualities that made the shoe quite a pick among buyers.First off, there’s the Filipino markings all over the shoe and its limited edition-issue box.ADVERTISEMENT LOOK: Vhong Navarro’s romantic posts spark speculations he’s marrying longtime GF Trending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes LATEST STORIES ‘Coming Home For Christmas’ is the holiday movie you’ve been waiting for, here’s why Lakers win 9th straight, hold off Pelicans “It feels so proud to see the Filipino words written on the shoe,” said the Gilas forward.Photo from Nike PHAlso worth a look is the shoe’s perforated upper, which contributes to the Agimat being one of the lightest and fastest in the LeBron line. Filipino sneaker fans tend to lean to lightweight shoes and with LeBron James wanting to honor the country’s passion for hoops that matches his own, having a light, breathable and flexible shoe became a priority for the Agimat engineers.GALLERY: Gilas Pilipinas rocks Nike LeBron 14 ‘Agimat’Anyone who loves to play basketball, from the consummate pro to the wobbly weekend warriors, values cushioning too, and the Nize Zoom Air midsole provides the Agimat with comfortable absorption that maximizes every step.With all those features and more, it’s no wonder people were queueing for the Agimat when it went on sale last weekend.ADVERTISEMENT Star retains top spot after thumping of Meralco Pagasa: Kammuri now a typhoon, may enter PAR by weekendcenter_img SEA Games: PH beats Indonesia, enters gold medal round in polo View comments Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. More than 5,000 measles deaths in DR Congo this year — WHO Cayetano dares Lacson, Drilon to take lie-detector test: Wala akong kinita sa SEA Games MOST READ South Korea to suspend 25% of coal plants to fight pollution Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Nextlast_img read more

Russia has conveyed it was unable to find documents for info on

first_imgNew Delhi: India has made several requests to Russia since 2014 seeking information on Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, but Moscow has conveyed that it was unable to find any documents in the Russian archives pertaining to the Indian leader, the Lok Sabha was informed on Wednesday.In a written reply to a question in the Lok Sabha, Minister of State for External Affairs V Muraleedharan said India sought information on Netaji such as whether he was in Russia anytime before or after August 1945 and whether he escaped to Russia in August 1945 or thereafter as reported by some researchers. Also Read – Uddhav bats for ‘Sena CM’The Indian government, in several requests since 2014, sought documents or material relating to Netaji, which may be in the custody of the Russian side, he said. “In its response, the Russian government has conveyed that they were unable to find any documents in the Russian archives pertaining to Netaji and even after additional investigations made based on request from the Indian side, they could not find any documents giving more information on the subject,” Muraleedharan said. Bose founded Indian National Army, commonly known as Azad Hind Fauj, in 1942 to fight British with the support of Japanese forces. Netaji is believed to have died in an air crash in Taiwan on August 18, 1945.last_img read more