Italian retail lottery sales suspended due to Covid-19

first_img Subscribe to the iGaming newsletter Legal & compliance Email Address 2nd April 2020 | By Daniel O’Boyle Italy’s Agenzia Dogane Monopoli (ADM) has opted to suspend retail lottery sales, including Sazka subsidiary LottoItalia’s 10e Lotto, Millionday and Lotto games, due to the novel coronavirus (Covid-19) outbreak. Italian retail lottery sales suspended due to Covid-19center_img Italy’s Agenzia Dogane Monopoli (ADM) has opted to suspend retail lottery sales in the country, including Sazka subsidiary LottoItalia’s 10e Lotto, Millionday and Lotto games, due to the novel coronavirus (Covid-19) outbreak.The restrictions are the latest in a series to curb the spread of the virus that have hit the Italian gambling industry.After the country instituted a nationwide lockdown – including the closure of all betting shops – on 9 March, Playtech was forced to close all of its Snaitech retail betting shops in Italy.Newgioco, meanwhile, said its sales have declined 20% as non-sports verticals partially offset a steep sports betting decline.Lottery games, however, were still available both online and in tobacconists, but Sazka said retail sales had drastically decreased due to much lower foot traffic after social distancing measures were put in place.“We are working to drive online sales across all of our markets, including the introduction of digital products, which are being thoroughly tested in order to meet the highest standards of responsible gaming, and measures to promote our existing online and digital offerings,” Sazka explained.“At the same time, we are continuing to evaluate savings and deferrals in our operating and capital expenses across our companies.” Regions: Europe Southern Europe Italy Topics: Legal & compliance Lottery AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterlast_img read more

First National Bank of Botswana Limited (FNBB.bw) 2013 Abridged Report

first_imgFirst National Bank of Botswana Limited (FNBB.bw) listed on the Botswana Stock Exchange under the Banking sector has released it’s 2013 abridged results.For more information about First National Bank of Botswana Limited (FNBB.bw) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the First National Bank of Botswana Limited (FNBB.bw) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: First National Bank of Botswana Limited (FNBB.bw)  2013 abridged results.Company ProfileFirst National Bank of Botswana Limited is a financial services institution providing products and solutions for personal, business and private clients in Botswana. Its personal banking division offers the standard range of transaction products as well as student accounts, overdrafts and loans and online banking products. The business banking division offers additional services such as purchase order finance, premium credit facilities and commercial property loans. First National Bank of Botswana also provides agricultural solutions, farming enterprise finance, business investment solutions and farm risk insurance finance along with solutions for payments, funding, cash management services to the public sector, and treasury and trade services. The private banking division offers wealth and advisory services, and structured lending services. The banking group facilitates its banking services through the Pick n Pay franchise with a sales and service channel called FNBB Kiosk. First National Bank of Botswana Limited is a subsidiary of First National Bank Holdings (Botswana) Limited.last_img read more

Chalet in Krkonoše / Znameni Ctyr Architekti

first_img Projects ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/595277/chalet-in-krkonose-znameni-ctyr-architekti Clipboard 2014 Czech Republic Architects: Znameni Ctyr Architekti Year Completion year of this architecture project photographs:  Tomas SoucekPhotographs:  Tomas SoucekSave this picture!© Tomas SoucekRecommended ProductsEnclosures / Double Skin FacadesFranken-SchotterFacade System –  LINEAFiber Cements / CementsDuctal®Ductal® Cladding Panels (EU)Fiber Cements / CementsSwisspearlSwisspearl Largo Fiber Cement PanelsWoodBlumer LehmannFree Form Structures for Wood ProjectsText description provided by the architects. Our primary effort as designers of this project and architectural concept of this house was to design  a new mountain chalet to replace existing dilapidated chalet which had been demolished. The aim was not only a creation of quality concept from an architectural point of view, but also for it to be a part of natural environment and help to shape genius loci in a positive way.Despite the primary impulse of the client to visually implement, technologically and typologically contemporary object, it was impossible to ignore strong vernacular element identical with the surrounding quality buildings forming typical character of local architecture of Krkonoše mountains. This element acts as a local identification symbol, which is a value created over the long historical development of Krkonoše mountain.Save this picture!© Tomas SoucekIt is a similar principle which generally appears in Transcarpathian and  Alpine mountain chalets.At the same time we strongly perceive examples of contemporary realizations in the local area by other architects who intentionally ignore this aesthetic value with the aim to clearly attain modern appearance.  Save this picture!© Tomas SoucekOur primary effort was to be inspired by traditional architecture /to mention among others the original images of existing chalet based on archive plans/ and try by means of slight deferral of meaning and architectural semantics identify the designed house with the contemporary period of  21. century.Typical part of typology and semantics of vernacular mountain chalets is a projection of function of each individual part of a house into the exterior appearance /functional morphology/Save this picture!© Tomas SoucekFor example living spaces / living room, dining room, kitchen/ are articulated by numerous window openings with the largest dimensions in the facades on the ground floor   Small bedrooms are located on the upper levels / mostly attics and mansard roofs/ where day light is provided by smaller windows in gables, or dormer windows. Technical windows in stone pedestal wall complete the overall appearance.Save this picture!Ground Floor PlanThe deferral of meaning mentioned previously we applied in this project by placing the main living space on the upper level and with the open maisonette.This concept has analogically articulated itself with traditional practices by enlarged window openings on the upper level and smaller windows on the ground floor.Save this picture!© Tomas SoucekInterior of the upper levels designed chalet utilizes in maximum way the construction advantages of laminated  wooden trusses which are used in construction of the whole roof.This type of construction method of the attic made it possible to open up the interior space to the full height and thereby unexpectedly gain new scale of the house in comparison with its limited exterior dimensions.Save this picture!First Floor PlanThe open living space drawn up in this way additionally enables unrestricted view in all directions and despite it´s placement on the upper level provides exceptional visual interaction with the surrounding natural countryside. Exterior appearance of the house is intentionally inspired by original architectural of Krkonose mountains and uses the design elements of solitary mountain architecture – chalets. These types of houses have characteristic features such as banked roof massing above wooden base , stone pedestal wall and traditional wooden facing on the gable wall.Save this picture!© Tomas SoucekThe gable walls of chalets in Krkonose mountains are often stepwise overhanged above the ground level.  Our design utilizes this characteristic element and transforms this stepwise overhang into a gradual extension of the gable wall in the outward direction, so the crest of the roof is visibly longer than the actual length of the house and its base.This solution has even a practical value, because it protects the wooden facing of the gable wall against the weathering and prolongs the lifespan of the wooden material.Save this picture!Second Floor PlanThis type of design approach is a direct reference to contemporary architecture often using  non structural logic of outward deflecting mass above their base. The facing of the facade consistently consists of natural materials, which gain patina over the time period during aging process that is considered as desirable in traditional architectural.This house with its low ceiling height and careful placement in the sloping terrain acts as if the house had grown from the surrounding nature, and the main attention itself by the viewer is drawn by a silhouette of the roof massing.Save this picture!© Tomas SoucekThe house itself is characterized by the brown and gray  shades of  color and a combination of wooden material with natural stone. The wooden facing is made of red cedar, exterior structural elements such as beams and columns are made of laminated spruce coated with copper varnish.The pedestal of the house has a massive 15 cm thick facing made of cleaved granite flagstone.Save this picture!SectionThe roof made of Copper sheet was designed with fan like shape rebated joint  for the purpose of highlighting effect in the upward direction of the extending massing of the house. The windows are made of laminated massive oak profiles treated by natural oil varnish.Project gallerySee allShow lessMaisam Creates A Gateway to PetraArchitecture NewsRebuilding Sandy Hook: How Svigals + Partners’ Design Offers Safety and SolaceArchitecture News Share Chalet in Krkonoše / Znameni Ctyr ArchitektiSave this projectSaveChalet in Krkonoše / Znameni Ctyr Architekti Save this picture!© Tomas Soucek+ 23 Share Chalet in Krkonoše / Znameni Ctyr Architekti 2014 CopyHouses•Czech Republiccenter_img Photographs “COPY” ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/595277/chalet-in-krkonose-znameni-ctyr-architekti Clipboard “COPY” Year:  Houses Year:  ArchDaily CopyAbout this officeZnameni Ctyr ArchitektiOfficeFollowProductsWoodStoneConcrete#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesHousesCzech RepublicPublished on February 07, 2015Cite: “Chalet in Krkonoše / Znameni Ctyr Architekti” 07 Feb 2015. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Jun 2021. ISSN 0719-8884Read commentsBrowse the CatalogVentilated / Double Skin FacadeTechnowoodProfile Façade SystemGlassMitrexSolar PanelsMetal PanelsAurubisCopper Alloy: Nordic RoyalFiber Cements / CementsEQUITONEFiber Cement Facade Panel PicturaCultural / PatrimonialIsland Exterior FabricatorsSeptember 11th Memorial Museum Envelope SystemConcreteKrytonSmart ConcreteSignage / Display SystemsGoppionDisplay Case – B-ClassMetal PanelsLorin IndustriesAnodized Aluminum – Stainless Steel FinishesWoodStructureCraftEngineering – Mass TimberWindowspanoramah!®ah!38 – FlexibilityChairsSellexChair – IrinaBathroom FurnitureKaleBathroom Cabinets – ZeroMore products »Read commentsSave世界上最受欢迎的建筑网站现已推出你的母语版本!想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?是否翻译成中文现有为你所在地区特制的网站?想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?Take me there »✖You’ve started following your first account!Did you know?You’ll now receive updates based on what you follow! Personalize your stream and start following your favorite authors, offices and users.Go to my streamlast_img read more

Volleyball defeats Texas Tech for another sweep of a conference foe

first_img Previous articleArrieta, former TCU pitcher, wins NL Cy Young awardNext articleMiss Black and Gold scholarship pageant focuses on female empowerment Garrett Podell RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Twitter Linkedin ReddIt TCU plays Texas Tech in a volleyball game in the Rec Center on the campus of Texas Christian University in Fort Worth, Texas on November 18, 2015. (Photo by/Sharon Ellman) Garrett Podellhttps://www.tcu360.com/author/garrett-podell/ TCU baseball finds their biggest fan just by saying hello printThe Horned Frogs earned a season sweep of Texas Tech Wednesday with a straight set win (25-13, 26-24,25-18) to improve their record to 18-8 overall and 8-6 in conference.TCU dominated the first set by playing mistake-free volleyball. The team did not have a single hitting error. Playing flawless keyed the Frogs to a 12-point victory in the first set, 25-13.“We got off to a really slow start when we played Tech at Tech, going down 17-6, but we did come back to win that set,” Director of Volleyball Jill Kramer said. “We really wanted to get off to a good start, I think the girls made a point of that and we played really well.”The second set was the opposite of the first. While TCU did hold a lead for a portion of the set, Tech had the first set point of the set when they took a 24-23 lead over the Frogs.However, the Frogs took over in the clutch winning the next three points to take the second set 26-24. TCU’s calm, confident demeanor allowed them to recover and claim the second set.“We were big in the clutch, they stepped up and had some confidence,” Kramer said.In the third set, Kramer made a lineup change, playing senior outside hitter Blaire Pickens.“She stepped up tonight and played a good role on the team,” Kramer said.Other than the lineup change, the team didn’t make many changes to its game plan.“We adjusted to the tip and the setter dump throughout the set, but other than that we didn’t make major adjustments, we just controlled the ball well,” Kramer said.Junior outside hitter Ashley Smith once again led the team in hits, which has become the norm lately with the Frogs.“She played to her strengths and took big rips at the ball, I think she’s one of the best outside hitters in the league,” Kramer said.Another big contribution to the Frog’s victory came from their setters, sophomore Kaylee Smith and senior Alexia Heist.“I think Lex and Kaylee distributed the ball really well, they’re getting a good rhythm with their hitters and feeling like the can set any hitter at any time,” Kramer said.Heist came off the bench to lead the Frogs in kills with 25, and Smith added 15 assists as well.In terms of attendance, TCU continued it’s trend of selling out every home game this year, with 2,275 people watching Wednesday’s contest between the Frogs and the Red Raiders.The Frogs take on the Oklahoma Sooners at noon in Norman on Saturday. Boschini: ‘None of the talk matters because Jamie Dixon is staying’ + posts Listen: The Podell and Pickell Show with L.J. Collier Garrett Podellhttps://www.tcu360.com/author/garrett-podell/ Boschini talks: construction, parking, tuition, enrollment, DEI, a student trustee Another series win lands TCU Baseball in the top 5, earns Sikes conference award Twitter Garrett Podellhttps://www.tcu360.com/author/garrett-podell/ Garrett Podellhttps://www.tcu360.com/author/garrett-podell/ Facebook ReddIt Facebook TCU rowing program strengthens after facing COVID-19 setbacks Garrett Podell Men’s basketball scores season-low in NIT semifinals loss to Texas Garrett is a Journalism and Sports Broadcasting double major. He is the Managing Editor for TCU360, and his passions are God, family, friends, sports, and great food. Linkedinlast_img read more

Ricardo González ends his hunger strike

first_img News RSF_en December 30, 2003 – Updated on January 20, 2016 Ricardo González ends his hunger strike Alida Viso Bello, the wife of Ricardo González Alfonso (photo), told Reporters Without Borders on 29 December that her husband had ended his hunger strike on 24 December after receiving “a satisfactory reply to his demand”.————————————-19.12.2003 – Concern about Reporters Without Borders correspondent on hunger strike in prisonReporters Without Borders today voiced concern about its correspondent in Cuba, Ricardo González Alfonso, who began a hunger strike in prison on 8 December to press his demand not to be held in a cell with non-political detainees.”We hold the Cuban government responsible for our correspondent’s health,” the organisation said, noting that several journalists have recently been transferred to cells with non-political detainees where they risk being the victims of violence from their cell mates, sometimes instigated by the authorities.With 29 journalists detained, Cuba is the world’s biggest prison for the press, ahead of Burma with 16 and Eritrea with 14. González is serving a 20-year sentence handed down on 7 April.González’s wife Alida Viso Bello told Reporters Without Borders she found him a lot thinner when she visited him on 17 December in “Kilo 8” prison in the central province de Camagüey, located more than 500 km from his home in Havana.She said he did not want to continue sharing a cell with non-political detainees or, at least, to be put with detainees who were less violent. Since 6 November, he has been held in various cells in the prison’s block 7 with non-political detainees, including one convicted of murder. Cell mates have twice stolen personal belongings from him.A prison official who attended the meeting between González and his wife said he was moved to a poorly-lit cell on 14 December as a punishment for “lack of discipline.” The prison official added that it was not up to him whether González was transferred to another cell.González was the president of the Manuel Márquez Sterling Association of independent journalists and the editor of De Cuba, the first independent magazine published in Cuba since Fidel Castro came to power. He was arrested on 18 March 2003 and convicted of “actions against the independence and unity of the state.”He was detained in a crackdown in which a total of 26 independent journalists and some 50 other dissidents were rounded up. The journalists were sentenced to prison terms ranging from 14 to 27 years.More information on Ricardo GonzálezMore information on the magazine De CubaMore information on the jailed cuban journalists CubaAmericas Organisation New press freedom predators elected to UN Human Rights Council Follow the news on Cuba Help by sharing this information News RSF and Fundamedios welcome US asylum ruling in favor of Cuban journalist Serafin Moran Santiago to go further May 6, 2020 Find out more October 15, 2020 Find out more News News Cuba and its Decree Law 370: annihilating freedom of expression on the Internet Receive email alerts CubaAmericas Alida Viso Bello, the wife of Ricardo González Alfonso, told Reporters Without Borders on 29 December that her husband had ended his hunger strike on 24 December. Gonzalez, correspondent for the international press freedom organisation, began his fast on 8 December to protest against his prison conditions. October 12, 2018 Find out morelast_img read more

PERRYMAN: The stakes are high as trade tension rises

first_img Pinterest By admin – April 15, 2018 Previous articleLETTER TO THE EDITOR: Tearing down monuments doesn’t change pastNext articleELAM: Oil prices and tensions on the rise admin Local NewsBusiness Facebook WhatsApp WhatsApp PERRYMAN: The stakes are high as trade tension rises Facebook Twitter Ray Perryman is the head of The Perryman Group and serves as a distinguished professor at the International Institute for Advanced Studies. The situation between the United States and China is tense, with new tariffs, threats of more tariffs, and growing fears that an all-out trade war may actually happen. There has recently been some sign of softening in the rhetoric between the two nations, but until and unless there is real dialogue and meaningful change, the risk of an escalation remains.Because it’s the world’s two largest economies involved, the stakes are especially very high. The World Bank estimates that in 2016, U.S. Gross Domestic Product was more than $18.6 trillion, while China’s was almost $11.2 trillion. It falls off quickly from there, with Japan at $4.9 trillion and Germany at $3.5 trillion. Clearly, what goes on in the United States and China will affect economic conditions worldwide.For a number of years, many analysts and market watchers have agreed that China has been engaging in unfair trade practices ranging from dumping (selling products at prices lower than the variable costs needed to produce them) to failing to protect intellectual property. A number of complaints have been filed through the World Trade Organization by both the United States and China, and the commentary in tweets and speeches has at times ratcheted up the conflict.The reason for the U.S. action is to force China to actually deal with these unfair trade practices, putting the pressure on with tariffs on imports of products from China. Chinese goods are thus more expensive to U.S. consumers, decreasing demand for them here. In response, China has listed tariffs of its own for U.S. goods entering the Chinese market. Consumers in both nations therefore face higher prices, and companies trying to export deal with lower demand.According to the Office of the United States Trade Representative, U.S. goods and services trade with China totaled an estimated $648.5 billion in 2016, with $169.8 billion in exports and $478.8 billion in imports. China is our largest goods trading partner, with a two-way total of $578.2 billion (exports of $115.6 billion and imports of $462.6 billion). These are big numbers, representing a significant slice of the economies of both nations.Looking specifically at what the United States sends to China, our third-largest goods export market in 2016, goods exports were $115.6 billion. That’s about 8 percent of overall U.S. exports. The top export categories include miscellaneous grain, seeds, and fruit (such as soybeans); aircraft; electrical machinery; machinery; and vehicles. Other products appeared to be on the verge of expanding, including beef. As China implements tariffs, U.S. producers of products which are listed will almost surely see lower sales to that nation.Here’s another wrinkle. China is a major holder of U.S. treasury securities. Data from the U.S. Treasury Department indicates that China’s holdings of such securities total almost $1.2 trillion. If China decided to dump these assets, there would be an immediate effect on financial markets. However, this scenario seems unlikely because it would be costly to the Chinese government and would have a limited long-term effect. More likely, the threat of dumping the securities will be used as a bargaining tool. Nonetheless, it complicates the situation.For Texas, a trade war with China would also be a bad thing. The Foreign Trade Division of the U.S. Census Bureau estimates that a total of about $16.3 billion in Texas merchandise was exported to China in 2017. The largest category was oil and gas, with $5.7 billion. Chemicals exports totaled $3.4 billion, with another $1.7 billion in computer and electronic products. About $1.3 billion in machinery was exported, followed by about $1.1 billion in agricultural products. There are some businesses in Texas which would benefit from the tariffs, namely those who produce goods that compete with Chinese imports which will now be more expensive due to a tariff, but some major Texas industries and export products are now facing the possibility that their products will now be much more expensive in China, a country that is an important market.Tariffs are never a good thing, harming both consumers and producers. Unfair trade practices are of course undesirable, but there are better and less disruptive ways of dealing with them than tariffs. It’s a risky strategy for both nations to take on the other, because the stakes are very high. Trade wars have a way of spreading, and the costs to the economy would be substantial. Pinterest Twitterlast_img read more

Tourism Ireland hopeful of recovery in second half of year

first_img WhatsApp Twitter Harps come back to win in Waterford Pinterest FT Report: Derry City 2 St Pats 2 Tourism Ireland hopeful of recovery in second half of year Pinterest Previous articleTaoiseach reaffirms support for NW Regional StrategyNext articleNews, Sport and Obituaries on Wednesday March 24th News Highland By News Highland – March 24, 2021 RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Facebook Journey home will be easier – Paul Hegarty center_img Google+ Google+ Derry draw with Pats: Higgins & Thomson Reaction Twitter Facebook There is unlikely to be a recovery in the numbers of international travellers arriving in Ireland until the second half of the year.That’s the view of Tourism Ireland, which has been looking at the impact the covid pandemic is having on Ireland’s tourism markets.CEO Niall Gibbons says the vaccination roll out is being looked at closely in a number of countries…….Audio Playerhttps://www.highlandradio.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/gibbons4pm.mp300:0000:0000:00Use Up/Down Arrow keys to increase or decrease volume. WhatsApp DL Debate – 24/05/21 AudioHomepage BannerNews News, Sport and Obituaries on Monday May 24thlast_img read more

Names of murdered police and prison officers burnt on Derry bonfire

first_img Names of murdered police and prison officers burnt on Derry bonfire Facebook By News Highland – August 16, 2018 WhatsApp Google+ FT Report: Derry City 2 St Pats 2 AudioHomepage BannerNews News, Sport and Obituaries on Monday May 24th There’s condemnation in Derry this morning after poppy wreaths and the names of murdered police and prison officers were placed on a bonfire in the Bogside area and set alight last night.In some nationalist areas, it’s a tradition to light bonfires on August 15th to mark the Feast of the Assumption.Its reported that a number of petrol bombs were also thrown at police in the vicinity of the city walls during disturbances last night.Local Councillor Brian Tierney says this behaviour will not be tolerated and there cannot be a return to the disturbances experienced in the area in July:Audio Playerhttp://www.highlandradio.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/tierneyweb.mp300:0000:0000:00Use Up/Down Arrow keys to increase or decrease volume. Pinterest Twitter Journey home will be easier – Paul Hegarty center_img Twitter RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Pinterest WhatsApp Google+ Derry draw with Pats: Higgins & Thomson Reaction Harps come back to win in Waterford Previous articleGAA Programme – 15/08/18Next articleDonegal accent most challenging for voice recognition software News Highland DL Debate – 24/05/21 Facebooklast_img read more

Cabinet to self isolate as Dail is suspended

first_imgCabinet ministers are to restrict their movements and the Dail have been suspended after the Health Minister began to feel unwell earlier today.Stephen Donnelly is to contact his GP to begin the process of being tested.The Ceann Comhairle announced that the Dail will be adjourned until next Tuesday. Homepage BannerNews Google+ Previous articleMain Evening News, Sport and Obituaries Tuesday September 15thNext article357 new cases of Covid-19 confirmed and 3 additional deaths News Highland Facebook Facebook Pinterest WhatsApp Important message for people attending LUH’s INR clinic Google+ WhatsApp Loganair’s new Derry – Liverpool air service takes off from CODA center_img Twitter Arranmore progress and potential flagged as population grows Pinterest RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Cabinet to self isolate as Dail is suspended DL Debate – 24/05/21 Twitter By News Highland – September 15, 2020 News, Sport and Obituaries on Monday May 24th Nine til Noon Show – Listen back to Monday’s Programmelast_img read more

The distribution and classification of the problematic Fragilaria (Virescens v.) exigua Grun.Fragilaria exiguiformis (Grun.) Lange-Bertalot: a new species or a new genus?

first_imgThe nomenclature of the taxon first recorded as Fragilaria (virescens) v. exigua by Grunow in Cleve & Moeller (1878) is examined with regard to the current botanical name, F. exiguiformis Lange-Bertalot. The distribution of this taxon in relation to pH is described from surface sediment samples collected from more than 200 soft-water lakes in both NW Europe and Antarctica. The optimum pH requirement is shown to be different in the two regions with a lower optimum (pH 5.7) for the European data set. One reason for this difference is the lack of moderately acid sites in the Antarctic data set. Another is that SEM investigation of F. exiguiformis from several localities shows that at least two taxa, characterized inter alia by presence or absence of spines, are present within this species. Lack of a rimoportula indicates that taxa in the F. exiguiformis complex should be transferred elsewhere. Also, the recognition of a non-spinose taxon within F. exiguiformis indicates that a new species description is required. Consequently and because the species complex cannot be incorporated satisfactorily into existing genera, a new genus, Stauroforma, and a new species, S. inermis are described. The species epithet is retained for the spinose taxon which becomes S. exiguiformis. Only S. inermis occurs in the Antarctic samples but both species frequently co-occur elsewhere. These two species have different ecological optima but since they cannot be easily separated by the light microscope using bright-field or phase contrast optics, their relative distributions and ecological preferences in NW European lakes remain uncertain.last_img read more