How dogs can walk on ice without freezing their paws

first_img Explore further Scientists in Japan have solved a long-standing veterinary mystery: how dogs can stand and walk for so long on snow and ice without apparent discomfort, and without freezing their paws. Scientists at Tokyo’s Yamazaki Gakuen University wondered why dogs do not seem to feel the cold in their paws, even though the paws have less insulating fur than their trunks. The paws have pads containing a high fat content, which freezes less easily than other tissues, but they also have a high surface area-to-volume ratio, which means they should lose heat easily.In humans exposed to frigid temperatures, vasoconstriction occurs in the extremities to reduce the blood flow and resultant heat loss, and ensure the blood returning to the rest of the body does not cool too much. The research team, led by Dr. Hiroyoshi Ninomiya, used a scanning electron microscope to study the paws of four adult dogs, and discovered that the arteries supplying blood to the pads had networks of numerous small veins, or venules, closely associated with them, and that the system essentially acts as a counter-current heat exchanger. When warm blood arrives in the paws via the arteries, heat is transferred to the venules closely associated with the arteries, thus ensuring the blood has been warmed up before it returns to the rest of the body.The counter-current heat exchange system prevents the body cooling and ensures the paw temperature stays within reasonable limits. The same system has also been identified in other animals such as Antarctic penguins, where it occurs in their legs and wings, and dolphins, which use a heat exchange system in their fins. The Arctic Fox (Vulpes lagopus) was already known to have a counter-current heat exchange system in its paws, along with numerous other adaptations to the cold, but the existence of such a system in domestic dogs had not been previously suspected or identified. The findings suggest that domestic dogs might have originated in a cold climate, in which such a system would have had survival benefits.Domesticated dogs are not all able to withstand icy conditions on their paws to the same extent, depending on their environment (such as habitually living indoors), and the breed. Common tips often suggested to help domestic dogs avoid cold feet in winter is to ensure their pads are not split or injured in any way, and to spray their paws with cooking spray before taking them out in the snow. Frostbite is very rare in dogs, but it can occur.The paper is published in the journal Veterinary Dermatology. More information: Veterinary Dermatology, Volume 22, Issue 6, pages 475–481, December 2011. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3164.2011.00976.x © 2011 PhysOrg.comlast_img read more

So what are you doing this Republic Day

first_imgTo mark the 63rd Republic Day, let’s shift our priorities by trying to be responsible citizens. But R-Day in Delhi also means closed markets, traffic restrictions and more. So what do you do if you want to go out? Simple, head to the mall. Two city malls are organising cultural programmes in asscoation with Self Assessment and Management Workshop (SAM), an NGO. ‘Our volunteers will be performing dances, drama and will also be singing,’ says Geetanjali Atri, media coordinator, SAM. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’There will be  a dance performance by Prince Dance Group of India’s Got Talent fame who are coming from Chattisgarh. There will be dances based on Lord Shiva, Vishnu and Indian Army. A rock band, Eternal Bliss, will present a fusion mix of their own compositions dedicated to the Indian Army. They will round up with a skit based on Subhas Chandra Bose’s journey and sacrifice which inspired the whole nation.DETAILAt: Select Citywalk, Saket; Pacific Mall, Rajouri Garden When: Today Timings: 4 pm onwardslast_img read more

Go to people with proof of development Mamata to MLAs

first_imgWest Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee seems definitely in mood to revamp the party organisation in the run up to the Assembly elections in 2016. At a recent meeting with party leaders, Banerjee not only reshuffled the Trinamool Congress’ (TMC) district leadership, but asked her party leaders to highlight the achievements of the government “with proof”– in the run-up to the  Also Read – Need to understand why law graduate’s natural choice is not legal profession: CJIAssembly polls. “There should be a list of schools, colleges, ITIs, hospitals with the party workers when they campaign. The people must know what we have done for them”, Sobhondeb Chattopadhyay, chief whip of the TMC in the Bidhan Sabha told Millennium Post.The Chief Minister reiterated how the public must be made aware of the various schemes that the government is offering and how to avail them.“Most of the people don’t know about schemes”, Chattopadhyay pointed out. Also Read – Health remains key challenge in India’s development: KovindThe Labour Department, for example, has schemes for the unorganised sector such as bidi workers, construction workers and so on. There are schemes for those living Below the Poverty Line (BPL) – like Amaar Bari Amaar Thikana, Geetanjali, etc. “The government provides housing for the homeless and also 3 kathas of land for building a small house and a kitchen garden, where vegetables can be grown. A small pond can also be used to develop pisciculture on this land”, he added.The district administration will also work hand-in-hand with the committees on development schemes.last_img read more

KoPT to deck up Howrah Bridge with LED lights

first_imgKolkata: The Kolkata Port Trust (KoPT) will soon begin work for installing multi-coloured LED lights to light up the Rabindra Setu, popularly known as Howrah Bridge, which is celebrating its 75 years this year.”Four to five top notch companies having expertise in illumination have already made their presentation. We are trying to figure out which one will be the best among them. The LED lights will be installed keeping in mind the heritage aspect of the structure. We hope to float the tender in two to three months,” KoPT chairman Vinit Kumar said. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeThe KoPT is also keeping in mind the cost factor before going for the tender as the estimates for decorating the bridge given by the companies is varying between Rs 15 to 19 crore.A senior KoPT official said that they have plans to set up the lights in a manner so that the colour and theme can be changed during occasions. For example, the lighting on Independence Day will echo the colours of the country’s national flag.The KoPT has planned the illumination to be of international standard, which will be an attraction in itself like San Francisco Bridge, George Washington Bridge at Manhattan, New York and Sydney Harbour Bridge of Australia, whose lighting enthralls people from all parts of the globe. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedIt may be mentioned that in 2006, Howrah Bridge was decked up with sodium vapour lights but they soon turned dim.Howrah Bridge, which since its inception continues to evoke the same kind of curiosity and awe as it did seventy five years ago, has a suspended span over the Hooghly River.Commissioned in 1943, the bridge was originally named the New Howrah Bridge, because it replaced a pontoon bridge at the same location linking the two cities of Howrah and Kolkata (Calcutta). On June 14, 1965, it was renamed Rabindra Setu after the great Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore, who was the first Indian and Asian Nobel laureate.It may be mentioned that the Howrah Bridge ferries more than 1.15 lakh vehicles on a daily basis from both Kolkata and Howrah. More than 5 lakh pedestrians also cross the bridge every day from both directions, easily making it the busiest cantilever bridge in the world.The third-longest cantilever bridge at the time of its construction, the Howrah Bridge is currently the sixth-longest bridge of its type in the world.last_img read more

Consider Bengal to be your home make plans to invest here Mamata

first_imgKolkata: Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee urged businessmen to invest in Information Technology (IT) in Bengal which is set to be the future destination in the country and perhaps the whole world.She laid the foundation stone of the Bengal Silicon Valley Hub at New Town on Monday evening. Terming it as “historic,” Banerjee said: “We were not there when investment in IT started in Hyderabad and Bengaluru. But now, both the places are saturated and Bengal is coming up as the next destination. Invest in Bengal and the state government will provide every facility,” she said. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeThe proposed hub is coming up in 100 acre of land and “if needed, we will provide another 100 acre,” she added.Banerjee maintained that there is no dearth of talent in Bengal. “You will find IT professionals from Bengal working in Hyderabad and Bengaluru and in many foreign countries as well. They will come back if you can give them proper infrastructure and respect. And I believe, they can do miracles,” she pointed out.Urging strong investments in the IT sector in Bengal, she stated the talent pool in Bengal is very high and the attrition rate is as low as 3 percent. The state government has land banks and land-use policy. “Consider Bengal to be your home and make plans to take the state forward. We are there to give you all the support. Consider us to be one of your family members,” she said. The Chief Minister said the situation in Bengal has changed drastically over the past few years. “There was a time when people did not want to invest in Bengal because of bandhs and strikes. The man-days loss amounted to 70 lakh and now it has been brought down to zero. I do not support bandhs and always believe in positive and not negative approach.” Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedBanerjee inaugurated three IT parks at Malda, Siliguri (Phase III) and Purulia. She congratulated the budding industrialists who have invested in the IT parks. Ramdas Kamath, the senior vice-president, Infosys, said well-known architect Hafiz Contractor has designed its building that will come up in New Town.”We will take 15 months to complete the building which will be a landmark site representing neo-classical architecture in Bengal. He especially thanked Debashis Sen, Additional Chief Secretary, state IT Department and Swarup Roy, Advisor, IT Promotion Cell for their tireless efforts to bring Infosys to Bengal. Describing Mamata Banerjee as “the best Chief Minister in the country,” Sanjiv Goenka said: “This is the best place to invest and the state government is ready to give every support. I do business in many states but in Bengal, the support I receive from the Chief Minister, her colleagues and the bureaucrats is remarkable.”Top officials of IT companies including TCS, Cognizant, Oracle India, Sify Technologies Limited, HPE-Aruba, DQE, Capgemini were also present at the event.last_img read more

Social media can help students connect better

first_imgNot just connecting you with friends, interaction with fellow students on social networking website can help you focus and study better, say researchers.Developers of open online courses may want to take a page from Facebook to keep more students engaged and enrolled.“Current open course platforms do not include collaborative features for students to work together, or good conversation channels between students and between students and teachers. Social media may provide another communication channel for the students,” said Saijing Zheng, former doctoral student at Pennsylvania State University. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The researchers found that open course students were more engaged on Facebook groups and preferred interacting more on the social media site than through the course tools. “We found that social media tools may be one way to keep students engaged in an open course,” said Zheng, currently research scientist at Microsoft. One of the advantages of Facebook groups is that users tend to sign up with their real names while students can create fake personas on course message boards and forums. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflix“Real names give other students the idea that they are talking to a real person and that, perhaps, helps build a sense of community and they trust that type of environment more,” Zheng noted.Students appreciate that Facebook offers several ways to contact the professor, she said.  They can reply to a post, like a post, and even send a private message.Students on Facebook groups can meet and chat weeks before the course starts and, in some cases, long after it ends. Facebook replies and posts also tend to be better organised than message board conversations, which can easily become buried among other posts, according to the researchers.For the study, the researchers collected data from three different courses on Coursera, a platform that hosts MOOCS, and from Facebook groups.The findings were shared at the annual ACM conference on Learning at Scale at University of Edinburgh in Britain this week.last_img read more

KMDA to set up foot overbridges to smoothen traffic

first_imgKolkata: Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority (KMDA) has decided to set up a few foot overbridges on Kazi Nazrul Islam Sarani and Eastern Metropolitan Bypass for faster movement of traffic and safety of the pedestrians.An underpass and a pedestrian footbridge will come up at Ruby intersection. Because of heavy traffic crossing the stretch on EM Bypass near Ruby, commutation has become a nightmare for the pedestrians. Because of offices, the concentration of people surrounding Ruby is fast increasing. The underpass will come up on the Mukundapur side while the foot overbridge will be constructed near the station of Garia-Airport Metro route. Experts suggested that there will be a huge concentration of people along EM Bypass and unless steps are not taken now, it will difficult to manage traffic and pedestrian movement in a few years’ time. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeFoot overbridges will also come up at the intersection of Ajaynagar and Patuli. Both these areas are accident prone as pedestrians find it difficult to cross EM Bypass. The pedestrian flyover will create an uninterrupted flow of traffic along the stretch. Foot overbridge will also come up at Dum Dum Park crossing. Once these foot overbridges come up, the time taken to travel to Kolkata Airport from Garia will lessen. Also, they will minimise the number of road accidents.last_img read more